Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Like all other administration ideas and standards, Benchmarking has likewise experienced the trial of time and effectiveness. Truth be told, it was not until Xerox actualized it in the late 70Ã¢â¬â¢s that Benchmarking has substantiated itself in the field of business the executives (Brown, 1992). During this time, Xerox was losing piece of the overall industry and feeling pressure from its rivals. While trying to get once more into the game, Xerox contrasted its activities with its competitors'.After contrasting its quality measures with others', Xerox started probably the best pattern in the business world today (Rogers, 1991). Despite the fact that there have been issues on in the case of Benchmarking must be considered as an independent administration idea from that of Total Quality Management (TQM), this paper would contend that Benchmarking is fairly a fixing and a productive device in the usage of an effective TQM process. This paper additionally would contend that benchmarki ng applies not exclusively to assembling yet in addition to support industries.In certainty, it has even called attention to that benchmarking has been valuable in the money related administration of Higher Education organizations (Tang and Zari, 1998). Outline OF BENCHMARKING The standard of benchmarking has been characterized in a few different ways relying upon the region of TQM where its qualities and commitments have been pushed. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) characterizes it as: Ã¢â¬Å"The procedure of methodicallly looking at your own authoritative structure, procedures and execution against those of good practice associations all inclusive, so as to accomplish business excellence.Benchmarking gives the key interface among recognizing and understanding the key models for change and adjusting these to the truth of explicit associations in the worldwide economyÃ¢â¬ (Waston, 1993). The acclaimed disciple of TQM and benchmarking Mohamed Zairi characteri zes it as Ã¢â¬Å"emulating the best by ceaselessly executing change and estimating performanceÃ¢â¬ (Zairi, 1996). In the two cases, benchmarking has its own imprint: permitting change for the best.Industry specialists of benchmarking consider a benchmark is the standard of greatness against which to gauge and look at wherein benchmarks are execution measures: what number? How rapidly? How high? How low? (APQC, 1995). Benchmarks are realities; benchmarking empowers genuine improvement (Ammons, 1999). Benchmarking is really the way toward learning exercises about how best execution is cultivated by the severe usage and work of best practices (APQC, 1995).Clearly, benchmarking goes past information social occasion, correlation and estimation. Benchmarking is a fixing in any complete quality administration development. Firms that need to know why or how another firm shows improvement over theirs follow the benchmarking idea (Greengard, 1995). Its utilization is quickening among U. S. firms that have embraced the TQM theory. Benchmarking is tied in with improving serious position, and utilizing Ã¢â¬Ëbest practice' to invigorate radical advancement as opposed to looking for minor, steady enhancements for memorable execution (Certo, 1994).Due to changes in monetary elements, innovation, showcase requests and other social components, benchmarking as a TQM instrument doesn't endure only contrasting past strategic approaches with present so as to pick up business greatness, rather it requires an association to grasp these changes. For this situation, benchmarking in accordance with TQM is an ideal business instrument toward worldwide intensity (Saxl, 1992). This case has been demonstrated by benchmarking experts who were considered as best among the best in the realm of business.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Sole Trader Companies Essay Sole broker organizations are the ones which are opened exclusively. For instance, there is one individual and he captivated about working together so he can put cash into the business and he needs to do it without anyone else. It implies he needs to discover where can wellsprings of money come and how to control it since he should work without anyone else without investors. There are a few wellsprings of accounts as follows: * Retained income: this is benefits of an organization subsequent to evacuating assessments, pay rates and costs or something to that effect and this source ought to be applied following scarcely any months from the earliest starting point. For instance, in the wake of evacuating all of costs like various costs, preparing courts costs we have the equalization in our bank account around 9500 pounds. Pizza hovel can utilize that cash effectively to buy for their crude materials it is likewise a favorable position of them when they can control their use and set aside some cash so they can utilize their cash without considering charging expenses or premiums. In any case, on the off chance that they base on target which is spared a lot of they are going to meet issues in light of the fact that the circumstances of organization will be distinctive relies upon various financial matters stage so they have to think about certain approaches to make sure that setting aside cash won't assume a ton of position in their record. * Selling resources: on the off chance that the business person set up their business yet they have issues in capitals so they should offer a few items to get cash to contribute and getting benefits. For instance, pizza cottage can sell their old machines, gear, or even their own logo. This is appeared to be a hazard route in light of the fact that in the wake of selling resources they will be lose their control in their business a little and it can prompt circumstances of having insufficient advantages for help for delivering. * Personal capital: The proprietors can put their own cash into business for development. This will keep him from the weight of interests from obtaining and the person can control their business without anyone else or herself without relying upon others one. * Debt account: it is regularly utilized when individuals begin to set up a business, business people will request getting cash from their families and friendsÃ¢ first lastly then they will request obtaining from others businessÃ¢â¬â¢s makes a difference. To put it plainly, obligation fund is utilized for buying in the obtaining activity of a business to report for their creations. In the event that Pizza cabin is a Public Limited Company Open Limited Companies is the ones which are made from at least 2 than 2 people. Furthermore, those people are called investors and every investor will claim a piece of the organization which is relies upon their budgetary capacity by the ones called shares. The more offers you claimed the more gift you have in charge of organization. By along these lines the organization can prepare capital effectively and there are a few wellsprings of account as follows: * Issuing shares: business can gather cash by giving offers to stock trade and exterior the business there will be a few people need to put away cash to cause benefits for themselves so they to can utilize their cash to purchase the offers and by that way the business can get cash and for the individual who put away cash they will have a situation in the business and they will get profit every month. * Venture capital: funding is turning out to be progressively significant wellsprings of account for developing business. This should be possible by people or gatherings of investors, they need to search for a great deal of potential organizations or tasks and settling on choices precisely isn't being needed of. Else, they can simple to meet obligations for profits for instance or they can go to bankrupt since they are lost a ton of cash for disappointment ventures. * Bank credits: Business can collect their store by obtaining cash from banks and this is appeared to be a decent method to get cash right away. Be that as it may, the business needs to contemplate the financing cost and the reimbursement capacity on the off chance that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to go to bankrupt on account of obligations. What's more, business think about credits as long or transient intends to help their business and the considering is relied upon the reasons and the measure of cash the business need to get. For example, if the business had 1 billion and they acquire 100 million, it would be considers as short Ã¢â¬ term advances on the grounds that the measure of cash they obtained isn't fundamental cash for ventures since it too little contrast with 1 billion. 1.2 Advantages and Disadvantages * Debt money: Favorable circumstances: everybody when they need to set up another business so obtaining cash is extremely fundamental since it will enable the business person to feel increasingly sure and they will be more grounded in working together. Detriments: moreover, they need to consider methods of reimbursing advances to other people. The explanation is that they will make a trust and increment their notoriety so they can obtain in next occasions without any problem. In this way, working together isn't generally positive so it expects representatives to consider methods of existing a great deal and when they go to bankrupt there will be difficult for them to look with makers and in the most pessimistic scenario they can be a jail. * Issuing Shares: Preferences: organizations can raise their assets effectively by giving offers and they can extend their business too. This assembly capital won't make an obligation which the business needs to reimburse. Plus, giving offers can assist business with pulling in and keep great power of staff and the business can associate with potential accomplices. Inconveniences: The organizations need to acknowledge high charges of giving. Giving offers can scatter the possessions, controllerships and incomes too. * Bank advances: Favorable circumstances: Bank credits are appeared to be a decent assets for a business to raise their assets in light of the fact that the business can get contracts from bank effectively and the strategic need to finish is that attempt to acquire benefits however much as could be expected to reimburse. Drawbacks: on the off chance that, the business cause lost with the goal that will to be a huge issue supposing that they didn't reimburse on time they will lost their advantages however the thing is they need to postpone the obligations and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the purpose behind interests will be expanded quickly and the delayer the more intrigue. At last at that point, the more cash can't be paid the more dangers of bankrupting.
Sunday, August 16, 2020
Whats in an App admissions video essay COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog The holidays are just around the corner! You know what that means. You have a little under 2 months to apply to our general deadline with SIPA fellowship aid consideration on January 5, 2018. Im excited to bring a new series to you this month about our application process Whats in an App. Since I know many of yâall are in the thick of preparing your stellar applications, this series of blog posts will hopefully answer your burning questions and provide helpful tips about the different components of our application. Weâll be covering a different part of the application every week for the remainder of November just in time for January 5th! Lets get started. Todayâs post is about the wait for it video essay. Now, this may seem daunting and stressful; however, its only one part of the review process. This isnât the be-all-end-all deciding factor for your admissions decision. This component provides the Admissions Committee a sense of who you are in person as well as your thought process and how you respond to questions. Weâre not able to conduct in-person interviews because of the high volume of apps we receive each year, so this video response is extremely valuable to the committee and our evaluation process. In itâs second year now, the video response is fully integrated into our online application. Weâve made a significant change to the accessibility of the video essay this year it is only available AFTER you submit your application and pay the app fee. Once this is done, youâll be able to see the video prompt in your Applicant Status page. That being said, youâll need to manage your time well and submit your applicati on well in advance in order to access this section and test your connection, webcam, mic, etc. to ensure everything is working properly. How does it work? We have a great video (and transcript) from a prior post, explaining how to access your video essay here. Remember, you can only access this through your Applicant Status page once you submit your application and pay the app fee, but otherwise, the process remains the same. Youâll review the instructions for the video, receive a randomized test question, have 60 seconds to think of a response, then another 60 seconds to verbally communicate this. Keep in mind, you wonât be allowed to resubmit a response. Once you have recorded your response, it is automatically uploaded to your application. What type of questions will I encounter? Our questions run the gamut, from general background, to behavioral to policy related questions. These do not require extensive research beyond reading about current events/affairs in international affairs and policy. Also, there are no right or wrong answers. So breathe, relax, and tackle this response with confidence. What if I experience any technical difficulties during my video response? If you experience any issues during your recording, please reach out to us at email@example.com or call at 212-854-6216. Our regular office hours are Monday through Friday, 9 AM 5 PM EST. Keep in mind, our general deadline is at 11:59 PM EST; so please plan ahead, allow time to test your audio capabilities, and contact us during regular office hours to troubleshoot any issues.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Research completed with VeteranÃ¢â¬â¢s illustrates that changing schemas, such as feelings of failure, incompetence and mistrust, to name a few, can be effective in decreasing symptoms of PTSD (Cockram, Drummond, Lee, 2010, p.5). CBT is useful for addressing multiple issues, including anxiety, panic, depression, substance abuse, and OCD. It can be especially useful in work with adolescents, older children and adults. Cognitive Behavioral therapy has expanded to include work with children and adolescents who have experienced trauma, has been shortened to include Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and can be used in group therapy sessions. Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), a Ã¢â¬Å"short term, component based interventionÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦49). Similarly, this approach is useful when working with LGBTQ individuals and other diverse groups, as it is focused on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and reactions to stressors and is open to modificatio ns. CBT has some shortcomings in regard to cultural competence, as it may be difficult for some to question the values of their cultures. For instance, a female, Asian client may have difficulty questioning her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s motives (Corey, 2009, p. 301). Other specific changes can help to tailor the intervention to make it more culturally sensitive. When utilizing this intervention, it is important for the provider to Ã¢â¬Å"understand the core values of their culturally diverse clientsÃ¢â¬ and take time to understand these beliefs before encouraging them to question personal and cultural beliefs (Corey, 2009, p. 300). Care would have to be taken to ensure positive rapport prior to encouraging this. Hinton and Jalal (2014), developed a cultural checklist that can be utilized to assess cultural sensitivity of CBT interventions which looks as ideas about language, religious background, demographic variables, and key catastrophicShow MoreRelatedTrauma Focused Cognitive B ehavioral Therapy1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesadolescents worldwide experience events that are traumatizing. If exposure to trauma is not treated, it could lead to various mental health problems. Researchers have reported a connection between traumatization and increases in mood and anxiety disorders, but the most frequently reported symptoms of psychological distress are post-traumatic stress symptoms (Cohen, Mannarino Iyengar, 2011). Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is basically a conjoint parent and child psychotherapy approachRead MoreInterventions For Children Exposed At Intimate Partner Violence1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesaffect the victim, but it may also cause psychological damage to children who may be exposed to it, both directly and indirectly. This paper will aim to examine two types of evidenced-based interventions available for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence and have developed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder as a result. The analysis provided for this paper is based on the studies provided by Community Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Children Exposed to Intimate PartnerRead MoreThe Most Damaging Types Of Trauma1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the immediate, as well as long-term aftermath of exposure to trauma, children are at risk of developing significant emotional and behavior difficulties (CWIG, 2012). The most damaging types of trauma incl ude early physical and sexual abuse, neglect, emotional/psychological abuse, exposure to domestic violence and other forms of child maltreatment (Hoch, 2009). Research has shown that children that are exposed to these types of trauma will experience developmental delays including language and verbalRead MoreThe Gestalt, Behavioral, Cognitive Behavior And Reality Therapy833 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe purpose of this paper is to identify how the Gestalt, Behavior, Cognitive Behavior and Reality therapies will be applicable to the future population we want to work with. The differences and similarities teach us the uniqueness of each as well as how their information correlates to one another. PTSD is probably going to be a major disorder I will come across when working with veterans and the cognitive behavioral approach was the most influential, but also most empirically researched approachRead MoreMethods of Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay924 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof para mount importance. This paper discusses the various therapeutic options that can be employed and the rationale behind each treatment method. The discussion shall be supported by evidence-based research from credible sources. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder can be treated using various methods and all focus on helping the affected person cope or overcome the traumatic experience through a gradual process. In essence, treatment does not aim at keeping the trauma or the reminder of it at bay;Read MoreCbt And Narrative Therapy For My Client s Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnosis Essay1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesanalyzed two very different treatment modalities of therapeutic interventions. These methods were Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Narrative Therapy. The framework and strategy behind each of these concepts could benefit a particular client depending on diagnosis and various other factors. Moreover, in some instances, a combination of both therapeutic interventions may be most constructive. In this paper, I will introduce my client and provide details of his life history in order to explore hisRead MoreThe Long Term Effects Of Childhood Abuse1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfor suspected child maltreatment in 2005Ã¢â¬ (Bentley Widom, 2009). Those children who are abused eventually become adults whom suffered from childhood trauma. Although a trauma may be considered to be in the past, for many the scars are ever so present when moving throughout life. Individuals who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t be exposed to high doses of stress and trauma are ready to go into fight or flight at any moment, but when this system is started over and over again, it goes from being life saving to health damagingRead MoreA Case Study : Response Grant ( SERG )1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages$990,335 grant provided behavioral health treatment for people who needed more than crisis counseling but had no other source of payment for one-year (Gregg, C., Lofton, L., 2011) Other focuses with this grant was geared to behavioral health for the unemployed or underemployed because of the tornado, individuals who were identified in the CCP program though the referral services and for those who need addiction treatment. Ã¢â¬Å"The grant also provided prevention services focused on increased risk of substanceRead MoreLisa Is A Candidate For Interventions That Address Her1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNTCSN, expressly for the treatment of children and adolescents who have experienced complex trauma: it is formed and grounded in attachment theory, child development theory, traumatic stress theory, and resilienceÃ¢â¬ (Lawson, M.D Quinn, J., p. 500, 2013). This intervention can be used in many settings, including a group setting such as TAP. That being said, I feel that Lisa would benefit from individual therapy, where her core beliefs, her schemas, attachment style, thoughts and feelings, and traumaticRead MoreEffectiveness Of Chosen Intervention For Children With Refugee And Asylee Youth1273 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntervention Based on the available research, the authors have chosen Cognitive- Behavioral Therapy as the most effective intervention when working with refugee and asylee youth. This intervention was chosen due to the high amount of research conducted using this intervention with refugee and asylee youth. The pliability of CBT allows this intervention to mold to the unique needs of this population and serve the vast degree of trauma and mental health conditions this population is vulnerable to. CBT
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Education is crucial if one were to be successful in life. In modern day, a person without a college degree would have a difficult time to sustain a living. On the contrary, those who are able to attend college and have graduated are also struggling to pay their student loans. Students who try to further their education have had this issue for ongoing years. Not only does a student try to acquire as much knowledge as one can, but it is not a guarantee that once a student graduates from college, that he or she will have an occupation. This all factors into how it has become strenuous for students to pay their student loans when tuition fees are excessive instead of being affordable for each student. Therefore, student loans should beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Student Loan Act of 2012 is a recognition that millions of Americans have grossly overpaid for their education due to governmental interference in the marketplace (Barnet and Bedau, 2014). Education should be a birth give n right instead of a commodity the government uses to extract money from (Barnet and Bedau, 2014). Instead of considering student loans as an exception it is seen as a norm. The average amount acquired by an undergraduate student in 2012 was $25,900 according to data from the National Center for Education Statistics (Johnston and Roten, 2015). The federal student loan program is designed to correct market failures that cause students to invest exceptionally less in their education because of either capital market imperfections or external benefits from education (Miles and Zimmerman, 1997). The capital market failure occurs because students are unable to obtain loans by committing future earnings as collateral. The high cost or lack of other financing causes students to invest less in their education than would be profitable for the student, furthermore it would be less socially desired (Miles and Zimmerman, 1997). The Ã¢â¬Å"external benefit failureÃ¢â¬ goes to proves that students do not efficiently value the benefits their education provides to society. Students canÃ¢â¬â¢t obtain the entire benefit for themselves in higher wages which cause them to invest less than the socially desirable amount (Miles and Zimmerman, 1997). Thus, they willShow MoreRelatedParental Involvement : Young And Helpless Essay979 Words Ã | Ã 4 Pagesthey will become, essentially building the foundation of our own being and existence. Finish introduction/Rework Ã¢â¬Å"Did you finish your homework, let me see it?Ã¢â¬ , what may be one of the most influential questions a parent can ask their child. This question has haunted millions of children every year hoping to slide one over on their parents in order to get that extra half hour outside before super. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a well researched and proven fact that parental involvement has a large impact on a childÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAmerican Media And Its Impact On American Culture1061 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKingdoms are shown through their successful trade routes, ordered government, wealth, Education system, individual morals and art. To start, the advances of ancient African culture is shown through their successful trade routes. As document 1 shows, the location of early african empires was essential to their success. The kingdom of Aksum, reached itÃ¢â¬â¢s peak of prosperity because of its location. The Kingdom is located on the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. Land routes were essential for trade because itRead MoreThe Problem Of Poverty And Poverty1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Problem: Looking at the myriad of problems our country faces, Poverty ranks as one of the largest; affecting nearly 14.5 percent of our national population and over 21% of the population in Norman. The existing communication found in poverty relief work is failing. With poverty happening all over the world communication gaps within service slow down and weaken the success and sustainability of the relief process. There is little to no collaboration taking place between the millions of organizationsRead MoreEducation Is The Most Powerful Weapon Essay1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThroughout our history, most of the revolutions were turning points that contributed and improved the modern society that we are living now. Social reformers such as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson have been spreading the message that education is crucial in leading to a successful life. However, there are still many people, especially those from the bottom of our social hierarchy pyramid, are struggling in daily l ife because of the lack of education. Social problems that we encounter these daysRead MoreThe Importance Of Self And Self Esteem861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"beliefs about his or her attributes and abilities as a person.Ã¢â¬ It can be impacted by outside variables and is crucial to the internal development of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. Self-Esteem is especially crucial to children, as well as adolescents who are struggling to discover their place and purpose. The maintenance of keeping a positive self-esteem is a continuous effort as one goes through challenges in life. According to psychotherapist Nathanial Branden, self-esteem is an essential human need that it vital forRead MoreThe Purpose Of Education By Martin Luther King Jr.942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Purpose of Education,Ã¢â¬ that Ã¢â¬Å"Intelligence plus character Ã¢â¬â that is a goal of true education.Ã¢â¬ Good character is defined as a particular feature or quality that is ingrained in a person throughout their lifetime. Character represents many qualities, which separates one person from another. Many parents wish that when their child would grow up, as a caring, and an honest person. Many people argue whether schools should provide character education besides academics. Character education programs areRead MoreUNICEF and Childrens Welfare Essay examples1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Health Among the many fights against poverty, improving childrenÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ health is one of the major responsibilities. A healthy child becomes a healthy adult, a person who has the ability to create a better life for them, the people around them, their community, and their countries. One of the core UNICEF objectives is to improve the health of the children of the world. Most of the children deaths occur due to pneumonia, preterm birth complications, intra-partum related complications, diarrhea andRead MoreSocial Issues Of Education And Education984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSocial Issues in Education The United States has made leaps and bounds in its education system since schooling became mandatory. Most people in the US have at least a high school education and are able to function in society as fruitful and productive citizens. However, in the past years the family and education structure have changed, creating new social issues for society to address and find solutions for. The following examines the shortage of teachers in schools, increasing school violence, andRead MoreAmerica s Equal Opportunity For The Education System Essay1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesopportunity it provides for its citizens. Anyone must be able to get a quality education, get jobs they want, and be productive members of society. However, there has been debate lately on how equal the opportunities are for the majority of American citizens. Many Americans have a harder time getting the quality education they deserve because of their social or economic status. Many employers value formal educations, but the majority of lower class citizens are not given the chance to pursue themRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Ethics775 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmanipulation, assets and liabilities were reduced at the reporting date, and the leverage ratio was decreased as well because the numerator and the denominator of that ratio are reduced by the same amount. As a result, Lehman Brothers declared bankruptcy and former officials of Lehman brothers have agreed to pay $90 million to settle a shareholder lawsuit. We can refer from the two previous examples that ethics education is crucial. The main reason for ethics education is that ethics courses and training
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Urban deprivation is one of the characteristics of large cities in all parts of the world Free Essays
The inner city areas of many Global cities have an image of decay with poverty, pollution, crime, overcrowding, poor housing conditions and unemployment. Such problems are more prevalent in inner-city areas than in other areas of the city. Deprivation has been caused by old industries closing down and increasing the unemployment levels which are not tackled due to the old workers not being skilled enough to work in these new factories or line of jobs. We will write a custom essay sample on Urban deprivation is one of the characteristics of large cities in all parts of the world or any similar topic only for you Order Now This happens more in MEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s compared to LEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s where overpopulation and urbanization have cause the problems in the inner city. Counterurbanization has been another problem within MEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s as it has left houses derelict and the people would rather commute than live in the inner city. This has then led to out of town shopping centers being set up. In MEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s the inner city initiatives for reversing the decline of the inner city started back in 1945 with comprehensive redevelopment. This program involved large-scale clearance of old terraces in order to provide space for new housing and inner city environmental features. Over twenty years 1. 5 million properties wee knocked down in the inner city. Elswick and Kenton in Newcastle were two areas embarked for comprehensive redevelopment. Existing residents were moved either into new towns of Cramlington or to extensive council houses estates built in areas such as, Byker. Many local authorities followed identical planning and soon the landscape of the inner city was transformed with huge concrete and glass tower blocks separated by flat expanses of grass. At the time these high-rise flats were a great success architecturally however the policy failed due to redevelopment underachieving demolition. This gave a housing shortage and vast spaces of derelict land. This policy that lasted till 1967 also failed to tackle the social and economic problems. 1968 saw another scheme come into action; the Urban Aid programme gave grants to local authorities to expand services in deprived areas and to establish community development projects using self help. This scheme was a great deal more localized and it was unfortunate that the economic downturn limited the funds and therefore by 1977 the scheme had finished. The next year the new towns policy was abandoned in an effort to stop decentralization of people and businesses. For the first time inner cities were officially declared problem areas. In 1988 Margaret Thatcher introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"Action for citiesÃ¢â¬ policy. From 1991 onwards-Local authorities were able to bid for funds for specific urban projects. An example is Sunderland; the money was used to redesign parts of the city center with a new shopping precinct. And bus station. A single government department, the end of the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s had created the Urban Regeneration Agency. In Greater Manchester 4. 5 hectares of the city were destroyed with 30,000 homes left damaged form the bombing of World War II. By the end of the war 70,000 homes were deemed unfit for living mostly in the high density Victorian inner center. The plan for Manchester was launched in 1945 with the aim of clearing all Victorian housing. Following the repair of the war the Manchester Slum Clearance Programme restarted in 1954. Over five years 7500 properties were demolished mostly in the Miles Platting area. In 1961 the policy of comprehensive development took place with the clearance programme expanding in four main areas: Hulme, Beswick, Longsight and Harpurhey. Over 55,00 new houses, a mixture of low and high rise were built to replaced the cleared terraces reducing the housing density and population by up to 50% in some areas. The Hulme area was a typical Victorian area of Manchester and was tightly packed with terraces. Conditions were overcrowded and polluted with few housing having toilets. After the demolition of the terraces, shopping facilities were introduced in three areas. By 1972 the redevelopment of Hulme was completed with 5,000 new houses being built. Problems did arise with new properties leaking and then the heating bills were too high for the residents and many found the accommodation inappropriate. This area fell into a spiral of decline with growing unemployment, drugs and violence along with eh deteriorating environment. The Hulme city challenge was launched in 1992. This plan involved building of 3000 new homes, shops, roads, offices and community facilities to replace existing properties in a 60-hectare area. The funds of i200 million came from the government, local authority and private finance. Manchester faced other problems form the closure of the nineteenth century industries that left 24,000 jobs unavailable between 1974 and 1984. Plans included 2000 new houses and 375,000 square meters of industrial and commercial floor space to provide 10,000 jobs. In 1988 central Manchester was given n UDC to regenerate 200 hectares of land and buildings in the southern part of the city center. This area included six conservation areas, over ninety listed buildings, three universities, the Granada Studios Tour and the Museum of Science and Industry. However these were the areas of contaminated land, derelict warehouses, mills and canals. The IDC ended in 1996 and in the eight years of operation invested i420 million. Urban deprivation in the LEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s have been tackled in many ways however there have been schemes that have proven to be a lot more successful than the others. In Chennai there has been a rapid increase in population due to the rural to urban migration and the high birth rates. About one third of the population lives in the slums, mostly shantytowns. The planning solutions began with the building of four to six storey blocks however these largely failed due to high maintenance and lack of uptake as the tenants would be unable to afford the rent. If the rent were reduced the scheme would lose money. After this initial failure The Board took up a new idea of upgrading the slums. The aims set were providing one bath and one toilet per ten families; one public fountain per twenty families; one street light per forty meters of road and one pre school per two hundred families. Other initiatives required self-help financing after an initial investment had been made either by the World Bank or welfare organizations. These schemes encouraged greater community involvement. Some of the start up loans were gave to families to build their own homes. Site and service schemes were implemented with finance provided for the acquisition of land; purchase of building materials, road building and the provision of basic services such as, water and sewage. New owners were then responsible for building the property on their allocated land. The upgrading after that often led to the sale of homes to higher income groups. The generated some money for the poor families and allowed the Board to re-invest in new schemes. An area in the southern outskirts of Chennai was the location for a site and services scheme known as Velacheri. It provided fourteen hectares of land to house 2,640 families many of whom were being forced out of Chennai. Waiting for the new residents building their homes would have caused a delayed the rail building so contractors were used to begin the building of properties. Along with the roads, water supply, streetlights and many other services. These services did face problems with many being left unfinished and extra floors being added without regulation. Some families sold their home for profit and the poorest were unable to afford these houses. These are some example of the initiatives being taken in order to solve the problem of urban deprivation. However there have been many other schemes and one of the most successful was that of the Favelas in Brazil redevelopment that won several prizes such as, the famous Habitat Award from the United Nations. These have been more successful as it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t break up the families and kept the community spirit and the families could continue to access their place of employment. The similarities between the initiatives of the MEDC and LEDC worlds that have been undertaken for there reduction of urban deprivation are not all that similar. This is due to the fact that the MEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s have more finance so there are able to use other schemes to tackle their problems. Also the fact that the problems they face are of a different cause. In the LEDCÃ¢â¬â¢s it tends to be shanty towns are therefore have to look to house these people unlike the MEDC it not so overcrowding but unemployment due to the decline of the Industrial Revolution and recently Counterurbanization has left old Victorian buildings derelict and an eye-saw. How to cite Urban deprivation is one of the characteristics of large cities in all parts of the world, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Cross Cultural and Strategic Management. Answer: Introduction: This report discusses the difference of management style in different countries in the world. Due to globalization, the organizations have got the scope for operating in various countries, manufacture their products in one country and exporting them in another market. Sometimes the companies operate from their headquarters located in different country but regulate their market located in different region (Knight et al. 2015). In doing this, they face various issues regarding the methods of management. Multiculturalism is the reason why the management needs to have a prodigious knowledge about the cross cultural management strategies so that the they can understand the expectation of the employees with different set of values and responses and act accordingly to utilize their manpower in a best possible manner. The news article namely Business Mentor: How Cultural Differences Affect Doing Business published in July 2017, reveals the fact that different culture of different country can affect the business and regulate the organizational culture in that place (News.abs-cbn.com 2018). As the reporter of this article Armando Bartolome has discussed that globalisation and technological advancement have greatly changed the connectivity and communication among the organisations operating in different countries. This articles originally describes the global acceptability of various factors which distinguish one organisational culture from another. The organisations which functions in a multicultural environment need to know some most important factors for effectively motivate the employees as well as business associates. Differences in leadership styles: This article discloses the fact that business management style varies from country to country. One management style that is effective in the European countries may not be effective in the Asian organization. Management styles varies across countries due to the factors like political influence, economic ups and downs, level of mobility, technological progress and market globalization. Including all these, the corporate culture of that country, educational background and the technological availability (Kuratko 2016). With the progress of time, the conventional management style has changed. The management styles that were once used to be very effective to manage the local employees became outdated as the organizations started to function in the multicultural markets. In this aspect, the theory of cultural dimension by Hofstede can be discussed. According to this dimension, the organizational culture varies from country to country. It describes the effects of cross-cultural communication where the societys culture influences the values of its members. This values ultimately relate to their behaviors and this dimension uses a structure derived from factor analysis (Coviello 2015). The article reveals that the communication mode is different in different cultures. In some culture, the people are blunt hence loud whereas in other culture, the people are soft-spoken and use more indirect language to communicate with others. In some cultures, the employees directly take the first name of their bosses or other employees but in some culture the last names of the employees are the only way to address (Stahl et al. 2017). The most senior business partner sometimes is the person to take decision at a meeting hence the employees need to acknowledge their status as a sign of respect and leave a good impression. Different people in different culture have different views and values of time. Some culture follows times as a guideline to complete their tasks whereas others see time to be very important factor to follow. In business, most of the organizations value time as they need to deal with other business partners hence coming late for the meetings may leave negative impression to the business making others to feel that the authorities are least interested with the deal (Moore 2015). This article then gives some recommendation that the business in cross-cultural environment should follow to sustain in different market. They should identify how their business partners value time then begin the trade relationship. Here the author has described the importance of punctuality in the business dealings with the American companies which often cannot be followed by the Indian or Filipinos. Theory of cultural dimension: As described by Hofstede, there are six factors that regulate the attitudes and thought sit h employees in the organization which affect the regulations of the company to sustain in that environment. These are power distance index, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, long term orientation and indulgence. The style of management in China and other south-east Asian countries is different because the society here is more collectivist. The people accepts the power dimension of the managers. The people are accustomed with the hierarchical structure where the power is executed strictly without any reason (Mackenzie, Golembiewski and Rahim 2018). The lower degree of this index discloses the fact that the power hierarchy is not clearly established in the organization hence the employees can question their higher authorities easily. The European and north American countries have lower power index where the cross-cultural leaders need to apply different method of management. In the collectivist country like India, China, brazil and some African countries, enjoy tightly integrated relationships with their extended fails as well as other groups. Hence the management needs to work for the wellbeing of whole community rather than for any individual. The European countries are highly individualistic where individuals work only for their own achievements or their immediate family. In the uncertainty avoidance index this dimension captures the situation where the employees are ready to embrace any kind of unexpected situation and tolerate ambiguity than any other societies (Jiang, Gollan and Brooks 2015). The societies score higher in this index opt for more stiff guidelines, laws and rely on absolute truth. In such cases, the market entry mode such as joint ventures (JVs) or as a wholly owned subsidiaries (WOS) becomes difficult for the organizations. In the societies scoring ow in this index have fewer relations and the market environment remains more free fl owing. The westernized organizations are more masculine where the people are more achievement oriented and believe in assertiveness and rewards for success. In this kind of culture, the women are also very competitive but less emphatic than men as this are seen to be taboo in masculine culture societies. On the other hand, the feminist societies tend to care for others in the organization where the members believe in cooperation and modesty of life. For the multinational companies, it is more profitable when the employees are less indulgent in the luxurious life. This is the reason why the big MNCs like Walmart, Amazon and Nike have been shifting their manufacturing department to the south Asian countries more specifically to China where the society is more rigid and restrained hence the employees are more controlled in their lives and carry on their tasks very seriously. As discussed by Edward Hall, the human receptions of space are actually formed as well as patterned by their culture. In his theory of proxemics, the theorist has suggested that differing cultural framework for organizing space, which are internalized in people at an unconscious level, may lead to the serious failure of communications well as understanding in the cross-cultural setting (Gelfand et al. 2017). This theory basically revolves round four dimension- context, time, space and information. In the article, author has pointed out that there are different communication methods which makes the organization or culture soft spoken or loud. Hall has identified two levels of context cultures. In the high context culture the organizational messages are implicit but bears metaphors but in low context culture, the messages are simple and clear to understand. The people in high context culture, accept failure whereas in the low context culture people blame each other for failure. In high context culture, the amount of nonverbal communication is high, people bear inward reactions, strong bond among themselves and prefer to maintain a long-term orientation (Dalkir 2013). In low context culture, the focus is high and filed with verbal communication. The reaction of people is visible and prefer to maintain an open grouping pattern according to the need of situation. According to Hall, the factor of valuing time also has two differ aspect. In the monochronic action, the people do one thing at a time, concentrate on the immediate job and emphasis promptness of action. On the other hand, in polychronic action, the members of the organization can do many things at a time. These people are easily distracted and prefer to lend things. Unlike monochronic action, which thinks about the time to finish a job, polychronic action emphasizes in the quality of the task. Here, relationship is more important than time. The factors of space and information are also vital for the cross-cultural societies to follow. The low-territoriality allows for the sense of low ownership of space. For taking the organization to a summit of success the maintenance of information flow is one of the most necessary things (Bird and Mendenhall 2016). The slow information flow allows the mangers to plan carefully structured strategies but fast flow needs to have a quickly made strategy. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that the article by Armando Bartolome, provides general idea about the functionality of the managers, operating in the cross-cultural market. The cross cultural issues emerge when they need to maintain different employees from different cultural background hence different code of behavior and expectation. The report here analyses these issues discussed in the article from theoretical perspectives and provided insights to these issues to manage. References: Bird, A. and Mendenhall, M.E., 2016. 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